Jalna district is approximately sitauated at the centre part of Maharashtra state and in northen direction of Marathwada region.

The Jalna district lies between 19o1 north to 21o3 North Latitudes and 75o4 East to 76o4 East Longitude. It covers an area of 7,612 Sq.Kms, which is 2.47% of the total state area.

District boundaries are adjacent to Jalgaon at north, Parbhani & Buldhana at east, Beed at south and Chhatrapati Sambhajinagar at west.

Population of District –

According to the Census-2011, Jalna district have 19,58,483 as a total population & density of population is 254 persons / Sq Km while in 2001 census it was 209 persons / Sq Km.

Please see following for in detail population in the district, Census 2001- 2011 differences & population distribution to Tahsils.

The district has a population of 19,58,483 as per 2011 census.

The male population is 10,15,116 & female population is 9,43,367. Male female ratio in district is found 1000 / 937.

The literacy is 71.52 % where as it was 64.52 % in 2001 census. Literacy decade rate growth is 7 %. Male literacy is 81.53 % and for female it is 60.95 %.

Density of population is 254 persons / Sq Km. In 2001 it was 209 persons / Sq Km.

Item Census-2001 Census-2011 Difference
Population 16,22,357 19,58,483 + 3,36,126
Literacy 64.52 % 71.52 % +7.00 %
Male/Female Ratio 1000 / 952  1000 / 937 -15
Density 209 Per. Sq. k.m. 254 Per. Sq. k.m. +45

Climate –

The district has a sub-Tropical climate, in which the bulk of rainfall is received from the southwest monsoon, between June to September. The average annual rainfall of the district ranges between 650 to 750 mm. The district often experiences drought with rainfall recording as low as 400 to 450 mm.

The rainy season is followed by Winter, which last up to February, during which the minimum temperature ranges between 9 to 10 c and maximum temperature ranges between 30 &  31 C.  The winter is followed by hot summer, which continues up to June. The maximum day temperature ranges between 42 & 43 C’s during summer.

Physiography –

The district has moderately to gently sloping undulated topography. The Northern part of the district is occupied by Ajanta and satmala hill ranges.

The 95 % area of the district falls in the Godavari basin. The river Godavari flows along the Southern boundary from West to East direction. The rivers Dudhana, Gulati, Purna are the principal tributaries of river Godavari, which flow through the district.

The major part of the district falls in the Purna sub basin. The river Purna flows from the central part of the district and meets river Godavari in the neighboring district. The river Khelna, and Girja are other important tributaries of river Purna which flow through the district.

The southern part of the district falls in Godavari sub basin A very small part of the district located North East of the district falls in the Tapi basinThe general slope of the area is towards Southeast.

The average altitude above mean sea level is 534 Mtrs. (A.M.S.L.).

Geology –

The entire district is occupied by basaltic lava flows of the Deccan traps of upper cretaceous to Eocene age. The lava flows are piled over one another. The individual flow thickness ranges between 20 to 30 mtrs. The individual flow has two distinct units. The upper part is vesicular in nature and vesicles are filled with secondary minerals like zeolite and quartz (e.g.Moss Agate, Zebra Agate and Green Agate) which is often called as zeolitic trap. The lower part of the lava flow forms the massive basalt, and often called as massive trap.Alluvial deposits along the major rivers overlie the Deccan traps.

The alluvium consists of clay, silt and sand. The thickness ranges between 10 to 20 mtrs. The alluvium forms a very fertile land.

Ground Water Potential –

The major part of the district forms the moderately dissected basaltic plateau, which has moderate to good groundwater potential. The northern part forms the highly dissected basaltic plateau; the ground water potential is expected to be poor.

Good potential pockets for groundwater exploitation are expected along the lineaments. The narrow alluvial deposits along the major river also forms potential zones for groundwater exploitation.

The area is suitable for groundwater exploitation through dug wells.

Land Use –

The most significant part of the Jalna district is that about 85 % of the geographical area is under agricultural use. Out of the total 7,61,200 Hectares of the geographical area, 6,51,553 Hectare of land is under agricultural use.

The latest revised statistics for the district’s farming season, 2002-03, are available for the year and will be comparatively easier, as these recent statistics have been used for commentary. The geographical area of ​​the district is 773 thousand hectares, out of which the forest area is 6.5 thousand hectare (0.84 percent). In the area which is not available for agriculture, the land under non-farm use was 7.23% of 55.9 thousand hectares or that of the geographical area. Grassland and cultivable land was 15.5 thousand hectares (2.01 percent). Thus, 10.00% of the total geographical area was not available for cultivation. The land acquired but not suitable for land under cultivation was 8.2 thousand hectares or 1.05%. Permanent cattle phase and other phase land were 19.4 thousand hectares (2.51%). According to the total livestock livestock in the district, animals of the cattle phase and other stages of the grassroots area of ​​the animal are very few in the form of 0.03 hectares. The land under which the land which was not included in the acquired land was 2.7 thousand hectares (0.35%). In addition to this, 28.12 thousand hectares (3.64%) and other paddy was 25.38 thousand hectares (3.28%). When all these above was not utilized in the above-mentioned land, net area was 611 thousand hectares, which was 79.08% of the total area under cultivation.